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Tuesday, April 23, 2024

NodeStealer 2.0: Cryptocurrency Wallets and Facebook Business Accounts Under Siege

A discovery by Palo Alto Network Unit 42 has brought to light an advanced phishing campaign involving the NodeStealer 2.0, a Python variant of the infamous malware.

This malicious code is specifically engineered to target Facebook business accounts and pilfer funds from cryptocurrency wallets, posing significant financial risks to its victims. Operating since December 2022, the campaign employs deceptive phishing tactics, offering enticing tools like business spreadsheet templates to lure unsuspecting users.

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The Ascent of NodeStealer 2.0

NodeStealer, a pernicious information-stealing malware, has wreaked havoc across multiple platforms, including Facebook, Gmail, and Outlook. Initially spotted in January 2023, the malware primarily targeted Windows systems, adeptly infiltrating popular web browsers such as Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Brave, and Opera.

The variant, disclosed by Meta in May, took the form of a customized Javascript malware that harnessed the power of Node.js, enabling execution on Windows, Linux, and macOS systems. The origins of NodeStealer trace back to Vietnam, with suspected threat actors from the region responsible for its distribution.

The Menace of NodeStealer 2.0

The recent campaign introduced two Python variants of NodeStealer, each boasting advanced features aimed at aiding threat actors in their malevolent pursuits. These new iterations come equipped with capabilities for stealing cryptocurrencies, downloading additional malware, and taking full control of Facebook business accounts. The repercussions of such attacks extend beyond financial losses, posing severe threats to the reputation and trustworthiness of those targeted, be they individuals or organizations.

Unraveling the Attack Mechanisms

The phishing messages employed in this campaign are cunningly disguised, often containing download links leading to a .zip archive hosted on widely-known cloud storage providers like Google Drive. Within this archive resides the malicious infostealer executable, which triggers NodeStealer’s nefarious operations.

  1. Variant 1: A Multi-Faceted Peril The first variant discovered by Palo Alto Networks showcases a diverse range of capabilities, including stealing critical information from Facebook business accounts, downloading additional malware, disabling Windows Defender through a user-friendly graphical interface, and pilfering funds from MetaMask cryptocurrency wallets using stolen credentials from popular web browsers like Google Chrome, Edge, Brave, and Firefox. Upon execution, the malware verifies the presence of an active Facebook business account on the default browser by connecting to https://business.facebook.com/ads/ad_limits/.

    Once confirmed, the malware proceeds to access the Graph API (graph.facebook.com) with the pilfered user ID and access token from the account header. The NodeStealer then harvests a wealth of sensitive data, including follower count, user verification status, account credit balance, prepaid account status, and advertisements-related information.
  2. Variant 2: Enhanced Capabilities The second variant detected by Unit 42 presents additional potent features, such as parsing emails from Microsoft Outlook, exfiltrating data through Telegram, achieving complete control of the target’s Facebook account, and deploying anti-analysis measures to evade detection.

A Profound Threat to All

NodeStealer 2.0 poses significant risks to both individuals and organizations, surpassing its initial intent to maximize profits for its Vietnamese-origin threat actors. Beyond the potential for financial loss, it poses the alarming risk of inflicting irreparable damage to the reputation of the targeted entities.


The emergence of NodeStealer 2.0 signals a grim reality in cybersecurity, showcasing a concerning escalation in phishing campaigns targeting Facebook business accounts and cryptocurrency wallets. As cyber threats become increasingly sophisticated, maintaining vigilance and implementing robust security measures becomes crucial in safeguarding valuable digital assets and preserving trust in the digital domain.

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